|Berkowski, B. 2002. Famennian Rugosa and Heterocorallia from southern Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61, pp 3 - 88.|
|Borcuch, E. 2004. Koralowce Rugosa z rodziny Disphyllidae w dewonie Świetokrzyskim: rodzaje Disphyllum i Temnophyllum. [Rugose corals of the family Disphyllidae in the Holy Cross Devonian: genera Disphyllum and Temnophyllum; in Polish; manuscript prepared for the Bachelor's degree]|
|Gunia, T. 1962. Fauna otoczaków wapieni a zagadnienia wieku zlepieńców Witoszowa (Dolny Śląsk). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego 32, z. 4, 493 - 528. [The fauna of limestone pebbles and the problem of age of the Witoszów conglomerates (Lower Silesia). Journal of the Polish Geological Society 32, vol. 4, 493 - 528; in Polish]|
|Hill, D. 1981. Coelenterata, Supplement 1, Rugosa and Tabulata. In K. Teichert (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, F 1 - 2, I - IX + 1 - 762|
|Jasinska, M. 2004. Koralowce Rugosa dewonu Swietokrzyskiego, rodzina Disphyllidae, rodzaj Hexagonaria. [Praca dyplomowa licencjacka]|
|Krupa, J. 2004. Koralowce Rugosa z rodzin Cystiphyllidae, Fasciphyllidae i Stringophyllidae w dewonie Polski południowej. [Rugose corals of the families Cystiphyllidae, Fasciphyllidae and Stringophyllidae in the Devonian of Southern Poland; in Polish; manuscript prepared for the Bachelor's degree]|
|Oliver W. A. jr. i Pedder A. E. H. 1979. Rugose corals in Devonian stratigraphical correlation. In: The Devonian System, Special papers in Palaeontology 23, pp 233 - 248.|
|Pedder A. E. H. i Oliver W. A. jr. 1990. Rugose coral distribution as a test of Devonian palaeogeographic models. In: Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography, Geological Society Memoir 12, pp 267 - 275.|
|Racki, G., Nowak, B., Wrzołek, T., & Słupik, A. 1993. Nowe dane o dewonie antykliny Siewierza na podstawie wiercenia WB - 12. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Geologia 12 - 13, 110 - 125. [New data on the Devonian of Siewierz antycline in light of WB - 12 borehole; in Polish]|
|Racki, G. 1993. Evolution of the bank to reef complex in the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 37, 87 - 182.|
|Scotese C. R. i McKerrow W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction. In: Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography, Geological Society Memoir 12, pp 1-21.|
|Wrzołek, T. 1982. Cyathophyllum diffusum sp. n. from the Frasnian deposits of the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica 31 3/4, pp 169-175, 6 pls.|
|Wrzołek, T. 1993. Rugose corals from the Devonian Kowala Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 37, 217 - 254.|
|Wrzołek, T. & Wach, P. 1993. Tetracoral genus Spinophyllum in the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mts, Poland. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego / Geologia 12/13, pp 47-63.|
|Wrzołek, T. 2002. Siphonophrentidae (Rugosa) in the Devonian of Poland. Coral Research Bulletin 7, pp 299 - 240.|
|Wrzołek, T. 2005. Devonian rugose corals of the Phillipsastrea hennahii species group. Acta Geologica Polonica 55 (2), pp 163-185.
full text (pdf)
|Wrzołek, T. 2007. A revision of the Devonian rugosan phillipsastreid genus Smithicyathus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52 (3), pp 609-632.
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|Gunia Tadeusz, 1962: The fauna of limestone pebbles and the problem of age of the Witoszów conglomerates
(Lower Silesia). Journal of the Polish Geological Society 32, vol. 4, 493 - 528.|
The author describes the fauna occurring in limestones pebbles in conglomerates present on the Lipina hill in the Świebodzice depression (Sudeten Mts). The limestones forming the pebbles are of Early and Middle Frasnian age, and are unknown in situ in the Sudeten Mts. Orginally these limestones were eroded after the Middle Frasnian and before the Early Famenian, in relation to the uplift of the frame zone of the Świebodzice depression. The author did not find proofs of the existence of the "pre-Marsian" orogenic phase in the southern part of the Świebodzice depression, with which, according to German geologist, was related the origin of the conglomerates. [original abstract]
|Racki, G., Nowak, B., Wrzołek, T., & Słupik, A. 1993: New data on the Devonian of Siewierz
antycline in light of WB - 12 borehole. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Geologia 12 - 13, 110 - 125.|
Over 180 m thick series of slighly dolomitized Givetian limestones, subdivided into 9 lithologic-faunal sets, has been pierced by the WB-12 borehole near Siewierz (see Figs 1-2 and Pls 1-5). This sequence comprises strata mostly older than those exposed on the hill between villages Brudzowice and Dziewki; this significantly supplements data on the section and facies development of the old-known, but still poorly studied "Dziewki limestones".
Comparison with the Stringocephalus Beds of the Holy Cross Mts reveals strict lithologic similarites, and presence of at least two (?three) shallowing-upwards cycles in generally regressive succession. Remarks on the taxonomic composition and biostratigraphic value of common and diverse stromatoporoids and corals (41 taxa; see Tables 1-2) are presented, with special emphasis on the tetracoral biozonation: the strata are assigned to the lower Givetian laxa Zone.
|Racki, G. 1993: Evolution of the bank to reef complex in the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 37, 87 - 182.|
Givetian and Frasnian stromatoporoid-coral limestones of the Kowala Formation in the southern Holy Cross Mts is subdivided stratigraphically, and correlated with strata elsewhere on the basis of identified sea-level cyclicity, with support from conodonts and other selected benthic fossils. After the Eifelian hypersaline sabhka phase, an extensive two-step regional colonization of the Kielce Region carbonate platform took place during the Eifelian/Givetian passage interval and the Middle Givetian. At least four deepening pulses resulted in intermittent drowning of the vast carbonate platform and sequential replaceament of the undifferentiated Stringocephalus biostromal bank by the Sitkówka bank complex and, subsequently, by the Dyminy reef complex. The reef developed in the central Dyminy belt as result of the early Frasnian accelerated see-level rise after some period of biotic stagnation near the Givetian-Frasnian boundary. Final demise of the reef resulted from combined eustatic and tectonic movements during the late Frasnian major crisis interval.
|Wrzołek Tomasz, 1982: Rugose coral Cyathophyllum diffusum sp. n. from the Frasnian
deposits of the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica 31(34),
The rugose coral Cyathophyllum diffusum sp. n. from the Upper Frasnian marly limestones of the Holy Cross Mts, Central Poland, is described. The new species has got dispersed trabeculae in the peripheral parts of septa. Distally convex blisters, i.e. the intraseptal dissepiments, connect the dispersed trabeculae of a septum. Another type of intraseptal dissepiments is demonstrated in the species Iowaphyllum mutabile Tsien, 1977, from the Frasnian limestones of the same region; in this species intraseptal dissepiments disrupt continuity of trabeculae and are the particular type of lonsdaleoid dissepiments. [original abstract]
|Wrzołek Tomasz, 1993: Rugose corals from the Devonian Kowala Formation of the
Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 37(24), 217254.
Rugose corals of the Givetian to Lower Frasnian Kowala limestone Formation in the environs of Chęciny, SW Holy Cross Mts, and its age equivalents in the Silesian-Cracow region of Southern Poland represent five distinct assemblages of restricted time-and-space distribution. Within the Stringocephalus Beds the high diversity Pseudohexagonaria(?) laxa assemblage indicates open-shelf conditions whereas low diversity Temnophyllum occidentale assemblage represents restricted conditions. The transgressive Jaźwica Mbr. Locally contains diversified and cosmopolitan Acanthophyllum sp. n. fauna. Following temporally coral assemblages, i.e. Disphyllum (lower Sitkówka and Chęciny Beds) and Macgeea-Thamnophyllum (Kadzielnia Mbr., upper Sitkówka Beds) are mostly biostromes of branching corals of low taxonomical diversity typical for restricted relatively setting, rather unfavorable for rugosans. Exceptional are two Hexagonaria horizons with common massive colonies. Diffusolasma gen. nov., Sociophyllum severiacum sp. nov., Temnophyllum zamkowae sp. nov. and Hexagonaria hexagona kowalae subsp. nov. are proposed as the new taxa. [original abstract]
|Wrzołek Tomasz & Wach Piotr, 1993: Tetracoral genus Spinophyllum in the Devonian
of the Holy Cross Mts, Poland. Geologia 12/13 (Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
w Katowicach 1331), 4763.|
Described and illustrated are the Holy Cross Devonian tetracorals with radial septal arrangement and carinate septa. They are assigned to the genus Spinophyllum Wedekind, 1922, synonymous with Truncicarinulum Yu et Kuang, 1982 and Charisphyllum Oliver et Sorauf, 1988. Of the three described species two, S. longiseptatum (Lütte) and S. aiense aiense (Soshkina), occur in the Upper Givetian (equivalents of Temnophyllum occidentale Zone); the third species, S. aiense liujingense (Yu et Kuang) is from the Frasnian Zones Macgeea-Thamnophyllum up to Phillipsastrea smithi. [original abstract]
|Wrzołek Tomasz, 2002: Siphonophrentidae (Rugosa) in the Devonian
of Poland. Coral Research Bulletin 7, 229240.|
Four species of the family Siphonophrentidae Merriam 1974 are described from the Holy Cross Mts, Poland. The two species, Enallophrentis corniformis (Gürich 1896), and Enallophrentis polonica (Sobolev 1904) are revised, although their type material is missing; the two species described as new are Siphonophrentis laskowae sp. n. and Siphonophrentis georgii sp. n. The corals studied were possibly of the Eastern Americas origin, introduced into the Old World biogeographic Realm. During the Givetian they inhabited the fore-reef setting of the Holy Cross area. Both Eifelian and Frasnian records of Siphonophrentidae in Poland are taxonomically dubious. [original abstract]
|Wrzołek T. 2005: Devonian rugose corals of the Phillipsastrea hennahii species group.
Acta Geologica Polonica, 55 (2), pp 163-185.|
Massive phillipsastreid tetracorals similar to Phillipsastrea hennahii, defined as a Ph. hennahii species group, are characterized by reduced intercorallite walls (thamnasterioid or subthamnasterioid habit), by variable but generally good development of horseshoe dissepiments at the tabularium/dissepimentarium boundary, and by strongly deflected peripheral platforms at corallite margins. Seven species of the Ph. hennahii species group, mostly from the Givetian of southern Euramerica, Iberia and northern Gondwana, are reviewed. Two species, the Middle Givetian Phillipsastrea sobolewi (Różkowska 1956) and the Late Givetian Phillipsastrea jachowiczi, a new species described herein, both from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) are described and illustrated. Also described from that area is Phillipsastrea falsa Coen-Aubert 1987 from the Upper Frasnian.
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|Wrzołek T. 2007: A revision of the Devonian rugosan phillipsastreid genus Smithicyathus.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52 (3), pp 609-632.|
The rugose coral genus Smithicyathus is diagnosed in this paper as massive to phaceloid phillipsastreid, with common horseshoe dissepiments and major septa that are very short in the tabularium. Revisited taxonomy of this genus is based on analysis of over 20 numerical characters measured in sections and/or extracted from literature data. Species are distinguished either by morphometric non-overlap in at least one, key feature or by geographic-stratigraphic isolation. The earliest possible representatives of the genus are known from the Eifelian of Angara (S.? emendatusand S.? russakovi). In the Upper Frasnian Smithicyathus is represented by seven species; in western Euramerica occur S. cinctus and S. mcleani sp. nov.; south-eastern Euramerican shelf area is with S. lacunosus, S. cf lacunosus, S. smithi, S. cf. smithi, and S. lubliniensis; one probable species is recorded in Angara: S.? belkovskiense. The genus did not survive the Frasnian-Famennian crisis. Smithicyathus lived in tropical and subtropical shallow-marine carbonate eniviroments, with the possible exception of the northern mid-latiudes species from Siberia. In the Holy Cross Mountains, S. lacunosus and S. smithi show a preference for restricted-marine facies. They may make up over 90% of all rugosan colonies collected in such locations, whereas in the more open-marine setting they are rare both in numbers and in proportion to other rugosan species.
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